High Returns to Schooling – Driven by Productivity or Screening?

The Economist summarizes a new World Bank literature review on the returns to education by Harry Patrinos and George Psacharopoulos. Patrinos and Psacharopoulos find that the returns to education are consistently high, an extra year of schooling yields an average annual private return of 8.8% across 139 countries. The paper shows that there are significant differences in returns across regions of the world, between high-income and lower-income countries, and for men vs. women.

The  researchers calculate the “social” (i.e. non-private) returns to education, an essential datapoint for those interested in the question of how much governments should invest in education.

Another key policy question that the authors address is the mechanism through which eduation impacts wages. Here is how Patrinos and Psacharopoulous frame the debate:

The earnings premium associated with the level of education suggests that productivity increases as people acquire additional qualifications. An alternative view is that earnings increase with education due to credential effects. This refers to the idea that higher levels of schooling are associated with higher earnings, not because they directly raise productivity, but because they certify that the worker is likely to be productive.

I was surprised to learn that the academic literature does not provide much support for the credential effects thesis; rather, positive labor market outcomes seem to be driven by increases in productivity.



This Week in International Education

Below are links to a few education-related pieces I read this week:

  1. Low Performance and High Satisfaction: The Information Paradox of Bad Schools This blog by Susannah Hares of Ark Education highlights  findings from the Varkey Foundation’s Parent Survey. The survey reveals that parents in countries that perform poorly in education (such as India, Kenya, and South Africa) are more satisfied with their children’s education than parents in high-performing countries such as Korea. The piece explores several potential explanations for this phenomenon and examines whether providing parents with performance information is an effective strategy for improving education outcomes.
  2. Facing Forward: Schooling for Learning in Africa – The World Bank’s new report assesses the current state of education in sub-Saharan Africa and suggests ways to improve both access and quality.
  3.  Are Our Children Learning? This Twaweza report summarizes the results of basic learning assessments conducted in three East African countries: Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania from 2011-2015. My main takeaway from the report is that all three countries have seen little to no improvement in basic learning outcomes over the last five years.